Wednesday, 31 August 2011

Sarah Jacob Cohen's Hand Embroidery shop, Synagogue Lane, Jew Town-Mattancherry. She is the oldest (87) surviving Paradesi Jew of Cochin and perhaps the most photographed and fondly visited member of the community.


Today, the shop is run by a Muslim couple, Taha and his wife under Sarah’s supervision. 'Though she doesn’t work, the designs are still hers' says Taha. Her hand made satin kippa (skull cap of Jewish men) is the most popular souvenir of the shop and I guess it comes around 500 Indian Rs. Thoufeek Zakriya maintains a blog for her: http://sarahshandembroidery.blogspot.com/2010/07/sarah-cohens-cochini-halah-cover-and.html
                                                             Sarah Cohen at work

 
The main entrance to the embroidery shop. Look for the Hebrew word 'Simcha' at the entrance which means 'Joy'.

 
Inside the embroidery shop
 
Hand embroidered cloths for display and sale

 
A history of Paradesi Synagogue and Jew Town of Mattancherry  through photographs


Friday, 19 August 2011

The Jewish Children's Playground, Mattancherry. This grassy open area lies opposite to the Pardesi Synagogue's main entrance. Remember, today (2011) Pardesi Jews are left with only 9 and most them are aged above 80! Who would have believed that the Pardsei community used to be large enough to maintain a playground for their kids! I wonder if the ground was used by the Malabari Jewish children as well?

Entrance to the playground from Pardesi Synagogoue: You can see the Jewish symbols: 'Star of David' (Magen David) and Menorah (The seven branched candelabrum) on the iron gate.


 Entrance to the playground from Mattancherry Boat Jetty

Entrance to the playground from Mattancherry Boat Jetty Contd.

The abandoned Jewish Children's Playground from Synagogue Side




Entrance to the playground. Look for the Jewish symbol, Magen David (Star of David) on the heavy iron gate.

Sunday, 14 August 2011

The Pardesi Synagogue of Mattancherry-the oldest functioning (but not the oldest existing) synagogue in India. Built in 1568, it is also said to be the oldest functional synagogue in the entire British commonwealth.

Without doubt the Pardesi Synagogue in Mattancherry is the most famous Jewish monument in India. A synagogue whose 400th year of establishment (on 1968) celebrated by Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi herself attending the occasion and the Indian Postal Department publishing a postal stamp reveals the importance of the monument. The Paradesi Synagogue was constructed in 1568 by four Jews, Samuel Castiel, David Belila, Ephrahim Sala and Joseph Levi. It is also the most easily accessible and well identifiable Jewish monument in Kerala. The oldest functioning synagogue in India has a rich history to offer visitors. Unfortunately, due to the no photography policy inside the synagogue, it is not possible to share some important and interesting features of the shrine to the public via photographs.

The exterior
A rectangular gatehouse space (thalam in Malayalam); a small room displaying ten 1968 paintings on Pardesi Jewish community by a Hindu artist; a courtyard scattered with tomb stones preserved from a previously existed Jewish cemetery; cornerstone from the oldest synagogue of Kerala; an azara symbolizing an anteroom of ancient Jerusalem Temple; a women’s upper gallery and last but not the least, the main sanctuary form the Pardesi Synagogue complex.

The Interior
Some of the unique attractions inside the synagogue are:

1) A brass-balustered (with 25 balusters or small pillars) Tebah or Podium where Torah is read

2) A second Tebah (unique to Kerala synagogue’s only) with wood balusters near women’s gallery on the upper floor

3) 250 years old hand painted blue and white Chinese porcelain tiles each with a different weeping willow pattern

4) A hand-carved (in teak wood) Jerusalem facing (i.e. west) Heichal (Ark cabinet) to store Torah scrolls

5) A beautiful brightly coloured curtain (Parokhet in Hebrew) covering the heichal

6) Silver and gold decorated Torah scrolls

7) Ornamental Torah crowns (coverings) of solid gold set with gems given to Jews by the Hindu Kings

8) Two special chairs kept for Prophet Elijah and for circumcision (Brit Mila) ceremony

9) Silver, brass and glass oil-burning lamps and crystal chandeliers from Belgium, France and Holland

10) A carpet presented to the synagogue by Emperor Haile Sallassie of Ethiopia in 1956

11) Two brass columns symbolizing the pillars Jachin and Boaz of the ancient Jerusalem Temple.
(courtesy, Prof. Jay A. Waronker,  www.cochinsyn.com)

What you cannot see:
The most precious possession of the synagogue is the two copper plates from 379 AD according to the Cochin Jews or from the 11th century as per modern scholars. These copper plates are the earliest documentation of Jewish settlement in India. These scrolls contain the grant given by His Majesty the King Sri Bhaskara Ravi Varma to the Jew Joseph Rabban and his descendants that include tax privileges, many rights and the area now Jew Town. Who really owns the copper scrolls is a dispute as the Malabari Jewish community believes it was stolen from their ancestors by the Pardesis. I don’t think the copper plates are now shown to the public or even kept in the synagogue itself. I heard an opinion that it is safely kept in a bank locker in Cochin. But you can buy a replica of the plates from the synagogue. The common tourists also cannot see the Torah scrolls as it is displayed only at religious ceremonies held in the synagogue attended by Jews alone.




Entering the Pardesi Synagogue, Mattancherry. The synagogue is closed for toursts on Fridays, Saturdays and Jewish Holidays. The Mattancherry Hindu Palace temple and the Mattancherry synagogue share a common wall!







The Police check post adjacent to the synagogue

Inside the Pardesi Synagogue, Mattancherry. Look for: 1) the brass-balustered Tebah, where Torah is read; 2) Heichal covered with a red curtain (Parokhet), where the Torah scrolls are kept ; 3) 1,100 hand painted porcelain tiles with willow patterns, each tile is different from one another and are imported from China in 1760s!


Tombstones displayed at the courtyard of Pardesi Synagogue, Mattancherry. These are the gravestones recovered from the nearby ancient (300 to 400 years old) 'Malabari or Kadavumbagam Cemetery'. Malabari cemetery does not exist today as it has been demolished and converted into a colony called 'Chakkamadom'. Nothing remains on the site, except for a single tomb.





Saturday, 13 August 2011

The three-storey clock tower of Paradesi Synagogue, Mattancherry. The tower was built in 1761 under the leadership of the famous Pardesi Jew, David Ezekiel Rahabi (1694–1772) who was also a representative of the Dutch East India Company.


The 45 feet tall clock tower has got Indian, Dutch and Portuguese influences on its architecture. In fact there are three dials on the clock tower. The dial on the southern side is engraved in Roman numerals and can easily be seen while you approach the Paradesi Synagogue through the Jew Street in Mattancherry. At the northern side of the tower (facing the Dutch Palace) is a clock with Malayalam numerals and one with Hebrew characters on the western side facing the synagogue. There is no clock on the eastern side. However speculation is that a fourth dial existed on the eastern side (facing the Arabian Sea) with numbers engraved on it. I have not seen both the Malayalam and Hebrew dials. Next time I will try to get the Malayalam clock from the Dutch Palace, but I cannot guarantee the Hebrew dial as photography is strictly prohibited from the synagogue compound. Here is the link to a nice photograph of the Hebrew dial available online. Don't miss this unique photograph here of the brand new Hebrew dial  before installing in the clock tower; photo taken in 2002 . Zoom here and here to have a look on the Malayalam dial, and you can see the common wall separating the Hindu temple and the synagogue.



3P: The room below the clock tower is used now as a storage room for bags and cameras of the visitors entering the synagogue.

The square shaped cupola of the clock tower with clay tiled roof & a finial with two spherical copper balls, a metal built mast and flag. According to Jay A. Waronker (www. cochinsyn.com), in the cupola was a bell which was rung every day except on the Sabbath to call the Jews to prayer. The bell stopped functioning in 1986 and removed soon, never to be repaired .


The clock dial with Roman numerals facing south (i.e. from Jew Town Synagogue Lane). Today, it is the only clock among the three dials in the tower with a pointer. The dial is made of teak wood. The clock worked until early 1940s and since then never has been repaired records Jay A. Waronker in cochinsyn.com! You can read 1760, the date of establishment of the clock tower engraved on the wooden clock.


INTRODUCTION

The monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived India much before they reached the West. For instance, it is widely believed that Christianity reached the subcontinent only after the first European colonists; the Portuguese arrived India in the 15th century. However, long before Christianity reached many parts of Europe, it came across to India. According to strong traditions among the ancient Syrian Christians of Kerala, Christianity was introduced to India by St: Thomas, the Apostle of Jesus Christ in 52 AD who later established seven churches across Kerala. Contrary to popular belief, Islam came to India prior to the 11th century Muslim invasions with the Arab merchants who arrived Kerala for trade in the 7th century AD. Similarly, Judaism the oldest continuously practiced monotheistic religion has an Indian presence from very early times. If traditional accounts are to be accepted, India had a Jewish colony from the time of King Solomon (10th century BC)!

Most importantly, all the three religions trace their arrival in India to the Malabar region of Southern India which is currently the modern State of Kerala. Since ancient times Kerala has been the center of the Indian spice trade where Greeks, Romans, Jews, Arabs and Chinese came for grabbing their part of share. To be precise, the first Jewish, Christian and Islamic settlements of India were established in a place called Cranganore (modern Kodungallur) in Kerala. The oldest church in India is found in Palayur not far from Kodungallur purportedly constructed in 52 AD by St. Thomas. The oldest mosque in India and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers is the Cheraman Juma Masjid of Kodungallur and is constructed during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad in 629 AD! Traditionally, Kodungallur had a Jewish synagogue even before St: Thomas arrived in 52 AD and it will then be the oldest synagogue in India.

Much has been written on Indian Jews, their unique culture and traditions. Among the three major Jewish communities in India, the “Kerala Jews” popularly known as “Cochin Jews” are the most ancient (2500 years ago) followed by the “Bene Israel” (2100 years ago) and the “Baghdadi Jews” (250 years ago). Recently two more communities have claimed Jewish ancestry viz. “Bene Menasheh” (1970s) from North East India and “Bene Ephraim or Telugu Jews” (1980s) from Andhra Pradesh. A small population of Jews had migrated to India during the Mughal, Portuguese, Dutch, French and British rule as well. Perhaps the Jewish refugees from Hitler’s Anti-Semitic Europe were the last Jews to arrive India. In other words, Jews weren’t a single emigration to India. At different times they arrived and settled peacefully in India where they never experienced any anti-Semitism from the native Indian community. In fact, it is said that out of the 148 nations where Jews have lived in, India is the only country where they were never persecuted by the natives.

Although Jews reached Kerala as early as 1st century AD, there were many different waves of emigrations later as well. Gradually, Jews of Kerala became organized into three distinct groups, but the different communities interacted very less among themselves. 1) ‘Meyuhassim’ (privileged) or Malabari Jews: the largest (85%) and most ancient group considered to have arrived in India as merchants during the period of King Solomon. 2). ‘Pardesi’ (foreigner) Jews: the second largest (14%) and recent group (from 16th century onwards) who migrated mainly from Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Iran, Spain and Germany. 3). ‘Meshuhararim’ (released): the smallest group (<1%) believed to be the slaves held by both Malabari and Pardesi communities who were converted to Judaism and later on released from their status as slaves. Based on skin colour, the Meyuhassim are called the ‘Black Jews’, the Meshuhararim-the ‘Brown Jews’ and the ‘Pardesi’-the ‘White Jews’. The arguments on who came first and who are more pure were often fought vehemently and each sect defended their claims. The Jewish population of Kerala numbered 2,400 at the height of their “mass” emigration to Israel in 1954. Today (2011), less than 40 Jews remain in Kerala-9 Pardesi Jews comprising of 6 women and 3 men; and less than 30 Malabari Jews.

In a strong caste-based Indian society, fair skinned Pardesi Jews managed to win a privileged position although they were a minority and newly arrived. Their European background, influence and wealth managed to push the majority of relatively poor Malabar Jews into an inferior position in colonial India. Unfortunately, even today for many in the west and to a great extent in India too, the existence of Kerala’s ancient Malabari Jewish community and their heritage is far unknown. The famous Pardesi Synagogue in Cochin is perhaps the only monument that comes into the mind of many as far as Judaism in Kerala is concerned. Acclaimed to be the oldest (built 1568) synagogue in British Commonwealth, the Pardesi Synagogue is the only functional one in Kerala today. Did the Jewish community of Kerala leave anything more than this famed synagogue? The answer is a big yes. Judaism in Kerala is not only about the Pardesi Jews of Cochin and their synagogue in Mattanchery. In fact, there are seven synagogues, seven Jewish cemeteries; six Jew Streets, a ‘Jewish Children’s Play ground’, at least two monuments and a few artifacts linked with extinct Jewish colonies in Kerala! This does not include the few existing Jewish homes and the many earlier Jewish residences converted into non-Jewish owned business buildings and private villas.

This blog will be an attempt to help people both inside and outside India to locate and learn about the known Jewish monuments of Kerala, that include synagogues, cemeteries and former Jewish residences. It will be equally pictorial and textual in format. One of the objectives of this blog is to help people in identifying all known Jewish monuments of Kerala through maps and photographs. Their left out synagogues and cemeteries are the physical landmarks that still stand in testimony to the vibrant and glorious heritage of Jews who claim at least 2000 years of strong and continuous bond with India. The big question is about the accessibility and identification of these monuments. Some of the cemeteries for example are so overgrown with weeds and turned into garbage dumping yards that even the locals have no clue about their existence. Most of the sites have no sign boards or maps available to pin point their exact location. The information from internet and other sources are also limited or at times misinformed when locating the monuments are concerned. I will try to get as many photographs as needed to help people understand these monuments and the blog will not be confined to the heritage of Pardesi Jews alone. For those synagogues that are disputed properties or lie in ruined state and are not accessible for the public I will only add photographs of the exterior. Some of the original Jewish artifacts from Kerala are preserved in Israel and what left here are the duplicates. In such cases, I will trace and append online links having the original photographs. All the trips I made to these heritage sites are through public transport systems and hence the directions provided will be for those who travel the hard way. Regarding the dates associated with the history of ‘Kerala Jews’, I have tried to incorporate the most popular views and need not always be the scholarly accepted ones. I shall be much glad if any one can contribute or provide details of additional monuments, sites or artifacts you think can be classified as part of Jewish heritage of Kerala.

Being also a photoblog, I will be concentrating more on the photographs taken from various Jewish monuments in Kerala. Not many sites are available online that go deep into the structural and historic details of these heritage units with photographs. However, we are lucky to have a few very enlightening resources. The “Friends of Kerala Synagogues 2011” (Prof. Jay A. Waronker, USA; Prof. Shalva Weil, Israel; Marian Scheuer Sofaer, USA; Isaac Sam, India and Tirza Muttath Lavi, Israel) maintain an excellent site on the synagogues of Kerala. I strongly recommend anyone interested in ‘Jewish synagogues of Kerala’ to go through their highly informative links. Whenever, I refer to their site, it will be acknowledged as ‘www.cochinsyn.com’. The other very important site I recommend is the beautiful photo collection by Jono David in his Ha Chayim Ha Yehudim Jewish Photo Library’. He has photographs from many Jewish monuments of India. Although he has got wrong one of the synagogues (Mattancherry Kadavumbagam Synagogue) the site has largely helped me to identify the Jewish cemeteries in Kerala. Thoufeek Zakriya who introduces himself as a young Indian Muslim, hospitality management student and a calligraphy artist maintains a well informed and interesting blog discussing the History of Jews of Kerala. His ‘Jews of Malabar’ is rich with unique information and rare photographs. A site maintained by Isaac Solomon has a very good collection of photographs on 53 Jewish cemeteries of the Bene Israeli community in India . However, he has not included cemeteries of the Jews of Kerala. Other way round, the Bene Israeli community has a site on the 49 synagogues they had established in Israel. Another interesting link has 360 degree view on the interiors of 10 Indian Synagoues including four from Kerala. General and popular articles on the subject are freely available on internet. You can also read some very informative classic books and scholarly written articles about the Jews of Kerala. Unfortunately, most of them are expensive to purchase and some are out of print or stock.


JEWISH MONUMENTS & ARTIFACTS OF KERALA

The most important Jewish heritage structures in Kerala are the synagogues (Juda Palli in Malayalam), cemeteries and residences.

A. Synagogues

Today, there are 35 synagogues in India and 7 of them are in Kerala. The architectural style of Kerala synagogues differs from those in the west. These synagogues are strongly influenced from earlier Hindu religious buildings on its design and construction. They are characterized by high slope roofs, thick laterite-stoned walls, large windows and doors, balcony and wood-carved ceilings. A Kerala synagogue consists of a ‘Gate House’ at the entrance that leads through a Breezeway to the Synagogue Complex. The synagogue complex is made of a fully enclosed Azara or Anteroom and a double-storeyed sanctuary-the main prayer hall. Inside a typical double-storeyed sanctuary of a ‘Kerala Synagogue’ are:

1) A Tebah/Bimah: Located at the center of the sanctuary, Tebah is usually an elevated wooden platform or pulpit from which Torah, the holy book of Jews is read. 2) A Heichal (Ark): Represents the altar. It is a chest or cupboard in the synagogue where the Torah scrolls are kept. It is usually carved intricately and painted/gilded with teak wood. Unlike in the European Synagogues, where the ark is placed on the eastern wall, the synagogues in Kerala have the arks on the western wall facing Jerusalem. 3) A Balcony/Second Tebah: It is unique to the synagogues of Kerala. The balcony has two portions one for men and the other for ladies. Women’s seating area is placed directly above the azara. 4) A Staircase: Leads to the balcony and is generally spiral in shape and made of wood. At times there are two staircases, one for men from the main hall inside the synagogue and the other for the ladies from a staircase room outside the synagogue; 5) A Jewish School: Is actually a classroom for Jewish children usually located behind the women’s section on the first floor.

B. Cemeteries

Resting place of ancestors means a lot to the Jewish community. Sometimes they even carried tombstones from their old settlements while migrating to a newer place. The oldest Jewish tomb in India (dated 1269 AD) preserved in front of Chendamangalam synagogue is one such transferred from Kodungallur. Unlike Christian tombs in Kerala with Malayalam and English engravings, the Jewish graves have mostly Hebrew inscriptions. The Jewish year can be converted into modern Gregorian date if one can read the Hebrew letters. ‘Reading Hebrew Tombstones’ is an interesting site to read the Jewish tombs.

C. Jewish Residences

Today, most of the early Jewish homes sold to non-Jews are substantially modified or refurbished. However, there are a few features that still make them identifiable. Sometimes you can trace Jewish symbols like Menorah (candlestick) and Magen David (Star of David) on the walls, windows and roof tops. For example, a few residences in Mattancherry still maintain the Star of David (Magen David) despite being converted into shops or warehouses. The best way to locate the home of a residing Jew is to look for the Mezuzah on the door post. Nailed to the doorpost of a Jewish home, Mezuzah is a small container made of wood, plastic or metal having a piece of parchment with the most important words from the Jewish Holy Book, Torah. It is customary among religious Jews to touch the mezuzah on entering or leaving the home. A few homes in the Synagogue Lane of Mattancherry with mezuzah are the residences of the remaining 9 Paradesi Jews.

The Jewish monuments and artifacts I will be discussing in this blog are:

I Synagogues

1. Pardesi Synagogue, Mattancherry (1568)

2. Kadavumbagam Synagogue, Mattancherry (1130 or 1539)

3. Thekkumbagam Synagogue, Mattancherry (1647, only the building site known)

4. Kadavumbagam Synagogue, Ernakulam (1200)

5. Thekkumbagam Synagogue, Ernakulam (1200 or 1580))

6. Paravur Synagogue (750 or 1164 or 1616)

7. Mala Synagogue (1400 or 1597)

8. Chendamangalam Synagogue (1420 or 1614)

(The various speculated dates of establishment in parenthesis are taken from www.cochinsyn.com, coutesy Prof. Jay A. Waronker)

II Cemeteries

1. Pardesi Jewish Cemetery, Mattancherry

2. Malabari Jewish Cemetery, Mattancherry

3. Old Jewish Cemetery, Ernakulam

4. New Jewish Cemetery, Ernakulam

5. Paravur Jewish Cemetery

6. Mala Jewish Cemetery

7. Chendamangalam Jewish Cemetery

III Jew Streets

1. Jew Street Mattancherry (Jewish residences with Mezuzah and Magen David)

2. Jew Steet, Ernakulam (today all shops in non-Jewish hands)

3. Jew Street, Paravur (Twin Pillars)

4. Jew Street, Mala (Gate House and Breezeway of synagogue turned into shops)

5. Jew Street, Chendamangalam (used to be a Jewish Market or Judakambolam)

6. Jew Street, Calicut (identified in July 2011 as Jootha (Jew) Bazar)

IV Other Monuments & Artifacts

1. Tomb of Sarah (1269 AD), Chendamangalam

2. Kochangadi Synagogue Corner-stone, Mattancherry

3. Jewish Children’s Play Ground, Mattancherry

4. Clock-Tower, Mattancherry

5. Sarah Cohen’s Embroidery Shop, Mattancherry

6. Jew Hill/Judakunnu/Jewish Bazar, Palayur

7. Jew Tank/Judakkulam, Madayi

8. Koder House, Fort Kochi

9. Grand Residencia, Fort Kochi

10. Jewish Summer Resorts, Aluva

11. Jewish Copper Plates, Mattancherry

12. Syrian Copper Plates, Kollam

13. Torah Finial, Palayur

V Lost Jewish Colonies

1. Kodungallur (Thrissur)

2. Palayur (Thrissur)

3. Pullut (Thrissur)

4. Kunnamkulam (Thrissur)

5. Saudhi (Ernakulam)

6. Tir-tur (Ernakulam)

7. Fort Kochi (Ernakulam)

8. Chaliyam (Kozhikode)

5. Pantalayani Kollam (Kozhikode)

9. Thekkepuram (Kozhikkode)

10. Muttam (Alappuzha)

11. Kayamkulam (Alappuzha)

12. Dharmadom (Kannur)

13. Madayi (Kannur)

14. Quilon (Kollam)

15. Pathirikunnu, Krishnagiri (Waynad)

16. Anchuthengu (Thiruvananthapuram)